Automobile emissions from highways are known to have harmful effects on the public. These harmful effects also raise concerns of environmental justice because their severity is highest near the transportation network. Established methodologies used in regional planning to identify the critical extent of emission dispersal from the highway and also to demarcate the boundaries of population group that is most at risk uses a fixed distance buffer analysis.
As cities strive for more sustainable transportation systems, many are considering renewable fuels for fleets. Biogas has several advantages as an alternative fuel. Composed primarily of methane, it can be cleaned for use in natural gas vehicles, or burned in a turbine/engine to generate electricity for electric vehicles. Biogas can reduce air pollutant emissions from fleet vehicles; in addition, if wastes are used to produce the biogas in digesters, the problem of urban wastes is reduced.
The development and deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) helps reducing energy use, achieve greater energy security, decrease emissions, and provide operating cost stability. To help consumers overcome the higher initial purchase costs of PEVs, and to help promote PEV adoption, government agencies and electric utilities have offered incentives of various design. While the PEV population has grown rapidly since 2011, the PEV market share and the demographics of PEV users varies significantly within and across regions.